It has an executive branch with Queen Elizabeth II as the Chief of State as well as a separate prime minister as head of government. Australia also has two major mainland territories— the Northern Territory and the Australian Capital Territory (which contains Australia’s capital city of Canberra). The southeast, however, does have fertile plains. They were: In 1901, Australia became a nation but remained a member of the British Commonwealth. Australia is one of the largest countries on Earth, and the only … She holds a Certificate of Advanced Study in Geographic Information Systems (GIS) from California State University. Europeans did not discover Australia until 1770 when Captain James Cook mapped the island's east coast and claimed the land for Great Britain. Australia is considered a developed nation, and it has the world's 12th-largest economy and sixth-highest per-capita income. Our most famous rock of course is Uluru in the Northern Territory. 35 Geography questions and answers for your home pub quiz We may earn commission from links on this page. The outcomes of this review are available in this Information Paper. Australia covers an area of 7,741,220 sq km. The highest points on the other continents are all more than twice the height of Australia’s highest peak, Mount Kosciuszko. The legislative branch is a bicameral Federal Parliament consisting of the Senate and the House of Representatives. Geoscience Australia is the government's technical adviser on all aspects of geoscience, and custodian of the geographical and geological data and knowledge of the … National Geographic’s latest travel stories about Australia. It is made up of more than 3,000 individual reef systems and coral bays and supports more than 1,500 species of fish, 400 species of hard coral, "one-third of the world’s soft corals, 134 species of sharks and rays, six of the world’s seven species of threatened marine turtles, and more than 30 species of marine mammals," including endangered species, according to the World Wildlife Fund. On January 26, 1788, colonization of Australia began when Captain Arthur Phillip landed in Port Jackson, which later became Sydney. Topping the list is Mt McClintock in the eastern sector of the Territory at 3490 metres with Mt Menzies in the western sector a close second at 3355 metres, both considerably higher than Mount Koscuiszko. Many international travelers visiting Australia underestimate the distances between cities and travel times. The larges of these is Melville Island in the Northern Territory with an area of 5,786 square kms. Properly called the Commonwealth of Australia, its territory consists of the entire continent and smaller outlying islands. It is also known as the Eastern Highlands. Australia's Geographic Features The diversity of Australia’s features are significant and for those not familiar with the scale of the country, it is easy to think of it as a relatively small island. Geography, Climate, and Biodiversity Australia is located in Oceania between the Indian and South Pacific Oceans. As a result, the population centers continue to be in the coastal areas. On October 9, 1942, Australia and Great Britain ratified the Statute of Westminster, which began to formally establish the country's independence. The calculations confirmed that Australia’s longest single river is the River Murray at 2,375 kilometres. It includes Australia, the smallest continent in terms of total land area. Fraser Island off the Queensland coast is Australia’s fifth largest island but the World’s largest sand island. It also has the greatest number of reptile species in the world as well as some of the most venomous snakes and other dangerous creatures like the crocodile. The diversity of Australia’s features are significant and for those not familiar with the scale of the country, it is easy to think of it as a relatively small island. The name “Oceania” justly establishes the Pacific Ocean as the defining characteristic of the region. Australia is located in Oceania between the Indian and South Pacific Oceans. Most of the first settlers in Australia were convicts who had been transported there from England. Copyright © 2020Australias Guide Pty Ltd. The lengths of the 10 longest rivers in Australia were re-calculated in September 2008 by Geoscience Australia using data from the National Topographic Database. It is a little-known fact that the highest point on Australian territory is in the Australian Antarctic Territory. Agriculture also plays a role in the country's economy, and its main products include wheat, barley, sugarcane, fruits, cattle, sheep, and poultry. Alpine forests, tropical rainforests, and a wide variety of plants and animals thrive there because of its geographic isolation from the rest of the world. Their assistance is gratefully acknowledged. Our editorial is always independent ( learn more ) The runner up for Australia’s longest river is the Murrumbidgee River in New South Wales at 1,485 kilometres. It is one of the largest countries on Earth.
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